His father was a master harness maker, and his mother was the daughter of a harness maker, though she was better educated than most women of her social class. Pietism was an evangelical Lutheran movement that emphasized conversion, reliance on divine grace, the experience of religious emotions, and personal devotion involving regular Bible study, prayer, and introspection. Leibniz — was then very influential in German universities. But Kant was also exposed to a range of German and British critics of Wolff, and there were strong doses of Aristotelianism and Pietism represented in the philosophy faculty as well.
Avicenna Medieval philosophy places heavy emphasis on the theological. Thomas Aquinasfollowing Peter Damianargued that philosophy is the handmaiden of theology ancilla theologiae.
For instance, such thinkers as Augustine of Hippo and Thomas of Aquinas made monumental breakthroughs in the philosophy of temporality and metaphysics, respectively. The principles that underlie all the medieval philsophers' work are: The use of logic, dialecticand analysis to discover the truth, known as ratio; Respect for the insights of ancient philosophers, in particular Aristotle, and deference to their authority auctoritas ; The obligation to co-ordinate the insights of philosophy with theological teaching and revelation concordia.
Avicenna and Averroes both leaned more on the side of reason. Augustine stated that he would never allow his philosophical investigations to go beyond the authority of God. History[ edit ] Early medieval Christian philosophy[ edit ] The boundaries of the early medieval period are a matter of controversy.
Monasteries were among the limited number of focal points of formal academic learning, which might be presumed to be a result of a rule of St Benedict 's inwhich required monks to read the Bible daily, and his suggestion that at the beginning of Lenta book be given to each monk. In later periods, monks were used for training administrators and churchmen.
It also places more emphasis on the sometimes-mystical doctrines of Plato, and less upon the systematic thinking of Aristotle. Much of the work of Aristotle was unknown in the West in this period. Scholars relied on translations by Boethius into Latin of Aristotle's Categoriesthe logical work On Interpretationand his Latin translation of Porphyry's Isagogea commentary on Aristotle's Categories.
Two Roman philosophers had a great influence on the development of medieval philosophy: Augustine is regarded as the greatest of the Church Fathers.
He is primarily a theologian and a devotional writer, but much of his writing is philosophical. His themes are truthGodthe human soulthe meaning of historythe statesinand salvation. For over a thousand years, there was hardly a Latin work of theology or philosophy that did not quote his writing, or invoke his authority.
Some of his writing had an influence on the development of early modern philosophysuch as that of Descartes. He became consul in in the kingdom of the Ostrogoths. His influence on the early medieval period was also marked so much so that it is sometimes called the Boethian period.
He wrote commentaries on these works, and on the Isagoge by Porphyry a commentary on the Categories.
This introduced the problem of universals to the medieval world. These schools, from which the name Scholasticism is derived, became centres of medieval learning.
Abbo of Fleury Johannes Scotus Eriugena c. He is notable for having translated and made commentaries upon the work of Pseudo-Dionysiusinitially thought to be from the apostolic age.
Around this period several doctrinal controversies emerged, such as the question of whether God had predestined some for salvation and some for damnation. Eriugena was called in to settle this dispute.In this short interview for Brain Pickings, pop-philosophy hunter-gatherer Filip Matous sits down with Cambridge University philosopher Stephen Cave to crack open some of the insights from his fascinating book, Immortality: The Quest to Live Forever and How It Drives Civilization (public library) — which also gave us this stimulating, if.
David Hume (—) “Hume is our Politics, Hume is our Trade, Hume is our Philosophy, Hume is our Religion.” This statement by nineteenth century philosopher James Hutchison Stirling reflects the unique position in intellectual thought held by Scottish philosopher David Hume.
Part of Hume’s fame and importance owes to his boldly skeptical approach to a range of philosophical subjects. Plato was a philosopher during the 5th century BCE. He was a student of Socrates and later taught regardbouddhiste.com founded the Academy, an academic program which many consider to be the first Western regardbouddhiste.com wrote many philosophical texts—at least He dedicated his life to learning and teaching and is hailed as one of the founders of Western philosophy.
II. The Knowability of God A. God Incomprehensible but yet Knowable.
The Christian Church confesses on the one hand that God is the Incomprehensible One, but also on the other hand, that He can be known and that knowledge of Him is an absolute requisite unto salvation.
Price, Henry Habberly (). British philosopher who defended a comprehensive theory of the relation between sense-data and material objects in Perception (), Hume's Theory of the External World (), and Thinking and Experience ()..
Recommended Reading: The Collected Works of Henry H. Price, ed. by Martha Kneale (Thoemmes, ) and Philosophical Interactions With .
Thomas Aquinas (–) The “order of demonstration” involves finding the properties of things as known through this general concept.
Then, specifying the subject further, one seeks properties of things known through the less common concepts. The Philosophical Theology of St. Thomas Aquinas. New York: E. J. Brill. Finnis, John.