It seems as though everyone has an opinion on the topic. Many observers argue that there is an excessive amount of bloodshed on television.
Content, Context, and Consequences. Social science research conducted over the past 40 years supports the conclusion that viewing violent television programming has negative consequences for children, and the research suggests three areas in which watching violent television programs can impact young viewers: Media violence can encourage children to learn aggressive behavior and attitudes.
Media violence can cultivate fearful or pessimistic attitudes in children about the non-television world. Media violence can desensitize children to real-world and fantasy violence. According to Eron" t here can no longer be any doubt that heavy exposure to televised violence is one of the causes of aggressive behavior, crime, and violence in society.
The evidence comes from both the laboratory and real-life studies. Television violence affects youngsters of all ages, of both genders, at all socio-economic levels and all levels of intelligence. The effect is not limited to children who are already disposed to being aggressive and is not restricted to this country" p.
It is a three-year study that assesses the amount, nature, and context of violence in entertainment programming, examines the effectiveness of ratings and advisories, and reviews televised anti-violence educational initiatives. The study, which began in and is funded by the National Cable Television Association, defines television violence as "any overt depiction of the use of physical force--or credible threat of physical force--intended to physically harm an animate being or group of beings.
Violence also includes certain depictions of physically harmful consequences against an animate being or group that occur as a result of unseen violent means" National Television Violence Study, Executive Summary,p.
Not all violence is equal, however. While some violent content can convey an anti-violence message, it is typical to sanitize, glamorize, or even glorify violence on U. Certain plot elements in portrayals of violence are considered high risk for children and should be evaluated by parents when judging possible program effects for children.
Characterizations in which the perpetrator is attractive are especially problematic because viewers may identify with such a character.
Other high-risk factors include showing violence as being justified, going unpunished, and having minimal consequences to the victim.
Realistic violence is also among the high-risk plot elements. NTVS findings from indicate that these high-risk plot elements abound in U. Based on reviews of social science research, it is possible to predict some effects of violent viewing in conjunction with specific plot elements: Learning to use aggressive behavior is predicted to increase when the perpetrator is attractive, the violence is justified, weapons are present, the violence is graphic or extensive, the violence is realistic, the violence is rewarded, or the violence is presented in a humorous fashion.
Conversely, the learning of aggression is inhibited by portrayals that show that violence is unjustified, show perpetrators of violence punished, or show the painful results of violence. The effects of fearful attitudes about the real world may be increased by a number of features, including attractive victims of violence; unjustified violence; graphic, extensive, or realistic violence; and rewards to the perpetrator of violence.
According to the work of George Gerbner and his colleaguesheavy viewers of violent content believe their world is meaner, scarier, and more dangerous than their lighter-viewing counterparts.
When violence is punished on television, the expected effect is a decrease in fearful attitudes about the real world. Desensitization to violence refers to the idea of increased toleration of violence.
It is predicted from exposure to extensive or graphic portrayals and humorous portrayals of violence and is of particular concern as a long-term effect for heavy viewers of violent content. Characteristics such as age, experience, cognitive development, and temperament should be considered as individual factors that can interact with the viewing of violent content.
Very young children, for example, have an understanding of fantasy and reality different from that of older children and adults. They may be more frightened by fantasy violence because they do not fully understand that it is not real.
It is currently in use by some of the networks.
Eventually ratings will also be used in conjunction with the V-chip, a device that can be programmed to electronically block selected programming. Beginning innew television sets are to include V-chip technology. Ratings categories are based on a combination of age-related and content factors as listed below.
These ratings may help parents determine what they consider appropriate for their children to watch. However, it is important to consider that ratings may make programs appear more attractive to some children, possibly creating a "forbidden fruit" appeal.
Furthermore, critics point out the potentially problematic nature of having the television industry rate its own programs, and these critics support the development of alternative rating systems by non-industry groups.But like it or not, the V-chip is coming; outflanked by their opponents, television broadcasters gave in to the inevitable last year.
By law, TV manufacturers must . V-chip is a generic term for technology used in television set receivers in Canada, Brazil and the United States, which allows the blocking of programs based on their ratings category. It is intended for use by parents to manage their children's television viewing.
Televisions manufactured for the United States market since and all units as of January are required to have the V-chip. Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public.
Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy effects of media violence. television ratings, and the V-chip, and the effects of media literacy programs and public education efforts. Future research.
Initiate legislation and rules that would ban alcohol advertising from television. Fund ongoing annual research, such as the National Television Violence Study, and fund more research on the effects of television on children and adolescents, particularly in the area of sex and sexuality.
Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public. Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy.
invention out called the V-chip that would be put into all new television sets. This invention takes signals sent from the television stations, and then translates them telling the T.V. if there is violence in the television .