However, much has happened since it went up, including the Blogger outage. Scroll down for a report on that. More new posts will be added below this one. The essay below is the conclusion of the ninth part in a series by Takuan Seiyo.
Policy formulation[ edit ] Under the constitutionthe cabinet exercises primary responsibility for the conduct of foreign affairs, subject to the overall supervision of the National Diet.
The Prime Minister is required to make periodic reports on foreign relations to the Diet, whose upper and lower houses each have a foreign affairs committee.
Each committee reports on its deliberations to plenary sessions of the chamber to which it belongs.
Ad hoc committees are formed occasionally to consider special questions. Diet members have the right to raise pertinent policy questions—officially termed interpellations—to the Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Prime Minister. Treaties with foreign countries require ratification by the Diet.
As head of state, the Emperor performs the ceremonial function of receiving foreign envoys and attesting to foreign treaties ratified by the Diet. As the chief executive and constitutionally the dominant figure in the political system, the Prime Minister has the final word in major foreign policy decisions.
The Minister is assisted by two vice ministers: The handling of specific foreign policy issues is usually divided between the geographic and functional bureaus to minimize overlap and competition.
In general, bilateral issues are assigned to the geographic bureaus, and multilateral problems to the functional bureaus. The Treaties Bureau, with its wide-ranging responsibilities, tend to get involved in the whole spectrum of issues.
The Information Analysis, Research, and Planning Bureau engages in comprehensive and coordinated policy investigation and planning.
Long a profession of high social prestige, diplomatic service from the Meiji period through World War II was a preserve of the upper social strata. In addition to formal qualifications, important prewar requirements for admission were proper social origin, family connections, and graduation from Tokyo Imperial University the present-day University of Tokyo.
After World War II, these requirements were changed as part of democratic reform measures but foreign service continued to be a highly regarded career. Most career foreign service officers had passed the postwar Higher Foreign Service Examination before entry into the service.
Many of these successful examinees were graduates of the prestigious Law Faculty of the University of Tokyo. Almost all ambassadorial appointments since the s have been made from among veteran diplomats.
Diplomacy in postwar Japan was not a monopoly of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Given the overriding importance of economic factors in foreign relations, the ministry worked closely with the Ministry of Finance on matters of customs, tariffs, international finance, and foreign aid; with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry MITI on exports and imports; and with the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries on questions of foreign agricultural imports and fishing rights.
The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries and other domestic ministries, however, took a more protectionist stand, evidently because of pressures from special interest groups.Our latest thinking on the issues that matter most in business and management.
What Type of Economic System Does Japan Have? Japan has an industrialized global free market economy.
A free market economy is a competitive economic system in which businesses compete with each other for profit and the prices of goods and services are based on supply and demand.
Contains the electronic versions of 80 books previously published in hard copy as part of the Country Studies Series by the Federal Research Division. Intended for a general audience, books in the series present a description and analysis of the historical setting and the social, economic, political, and national security systems and institutions of .
The economic history of Japan is one of the most studied economies for its spectacular growth in three different periods. First was the foundation of Edo (in ) to whole inland economical developments, second was the Meiji Restoration (in ) to be the first non-European power, third was after the defeat of World War II (in ) when the island .
Learn more about Japan's economy in the Index of Economic Freedom. The report includes the Japanese population, GDP, facts about Japan, business, trade, unemployment and other economic data.
Nadeem Walayat is the Editor of The Market Oracle; with over 25 years experience of trading derivates and portfilio management.