Compared with people of normal weight, those who are overweight or obese are at greater risk for many diseases, including diabeteshigh blood pressurecardiovascular diseasestrokeand many cancers. Extreme or severe obesity is also associated with an increased death rate; heart diseasecancer, and diabetes are responsible for most of the excess deaths 12.
Pursue prevention strategies To prevent cancer, people may: Vaccination against these HPV and hepatitis B viruses could prevent 1 million cancer cases each year3. Early detection Cancer mortality can be reduced if cases are detected and treated early.
There are 2 components of early detection: Early diagnosis When identified early, cancer is more likely to respond to effective treatment and can result in a greater probability of surviving, less morbidity, and less expensive treatment.
Significant improvements can be made in the lives of cancer patients by detecting cancer early and avoiding delays in care. Early diagnosis consists of 3 steps that must be integrated and provided in a timely manner: Early diagnosis is relevant in all settings and the majority of cancers.
In absence of early diagnosis, patients are diagnosed at late stages when curative treatment may no longer be an option. Programmes can be designed to reduce delays in, and barriers to, care, allowing patients to access treatment in a timely manner.
Screening Screening aims to identify individuals with abnormalities suggestive of a specific cancer or pre-cancer who have not developed any symptoms and refer them promptly for diagnosis and treatment. Screening programmes can be effective for select cancer types when appropriate tests are used, implemented effectively, linked to other steps in the screening process and when quality is assured.
In general, a screening programme is a far more complex public health intervention compared to early diagnosis. Examples of screening methods are: Treatment A correct cancer diagnosis is essential for adequate and effective treatment because every cancer type requires a specific treatment regimen that encompasses one or more modalities such as surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.
Determining the goals of treatment and palliative care is an important first step, and health services should be integrated and people-centred. The primary goal is generally to cure cancer or to considerably prolong life. Improving the patient's quality of life is also an important goal.
This can be achieved by supportive or palliative care and psychosocial support. Potential for cure among early detectable cancers Some of the most common cancer types, such as breast cancer, cervical cancer, oral cancer, and colorectal cancer have high cure rates when detected early and treated according to best practices.
Potential for cure of some other cancers Some cancer types, even when cancerous cells have traveled to other areas of the body, such as testicular seminoma and leukaemias and lymphomas in children, can have high cure rates if appropriate treatment is provided.
Palliative care Palliative care is treatment to relieve, rather than cure, symptoms caused by cancer and improve the quality of life of patients and their families. Palliative care can help people live more comfortably. It is an urgent humanitarian need for people worldwide with cancer and other chronic fatal diseases and particularly needed in places with a high proportion of patients in advanced stages of cancer where there is little chance of cure.
Palliative care strategies Effective public health strategies, comprising of community- and home-based care are essential to provide pain relief and palliative care for patients and their families in low-resource settings.
International Agency for Research on Cancer; Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in Cancer is a disease caused by genetic changes leading to uncontrolled cell growth and tumor formation.
The basic cause of sporadic (non-familial) cancers is DNA damage and genomic instability. A minority of cancers are due to inherited genetic mutations.
Most cancers are related to environmental, lifestyle, or behavioral exposures. Cancer is . Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread to other parts of the body.
Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss and a change in bowel movements. Cancer is a complex group of diseases with many possible causes.
In this section you can learn more about the known and possible causes of cancer, as well as general information about carcinogens and how genetics play a role in cancer.
Smoking is by far the biggest preventable cause of cancer. Smoking accounts for more than 1 in 4 UK cancer deaths. Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the risk of getting cancer. This can include maintaining a healthy lifestyle, avoiding exposure to known cancer-causing substances, and taking medicines or vaccines that can prevent cancer from developing.
Information about genetic changes, how they may be. Causes. Cancer is caused by changes (mutations) to the DNA within cells. The DNA inside a cell is packaged into a large number of individual genes, each of which contains a set of instructions telling the cell what functions to perform, as well as how to grow and divide.