CAST increases the availability of academic and success services to Hispanic and other high need students by building on college-readiness skills introduced and helping students maintain these healthy habits throughout their college career and beyond. Career Counseling Expands career services so that Lone Star College-North Harris students are exposed to a variety of career options, understand the pathway of the careers they have chosen, and have an opportunity to enhance the skills needed to successfully obtain a job and have a successful career. The Office of Technology Services assessed the minor construction that may be needed to accommodate offices for the two part-time career advisors. February - Two part-time career advisor positions are in the process of being approved for posting.
Auditory systemRetinaEye Pages: The Special Senses I. An Introduction to the Special Senses The state of our nervous systems determines what we perceive. For example, during sympathetic activation, we experience a heightened awareness of sensory information and hear sounds that would normally escape our notice.
Yet, when concentrating on a difficult problem, we may remain unaware of relatively loud noises. The five special senses are: Olfaction The olfactory organs are located in the nasal cavity on either side of the nasal septum.
The olfactory organs are made up of two layers: The olfactory epithelium contains the olfactory receptors, supporting cells, and basal stem cells.
The surfaces of the olfactory organs are coated with the secretions of the olfactory glands.
Olfactory Receptor The olfactory receptors are highly modified neurons. Olfactory reception involves detecting dissolved chemicals as they interact with odorant-binding proteins. Olfactory Pathways Axons leaving the olfactory epithelium collect into 20 or more bundles that penetrate the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone to reach the olfactory bulbs of the cerebrum where the first synapse occurs.
Axons leaving the olfactory bulb travel along the olfactory tract to reach the olfactory cortex, the hypothalamus, and portions of the limbic system. In olfaction, the arriving information reaches the information centers without first synapsing in the thalamus.
Olfactory Discrimination The olfactory system can distinguish thousands of chemical stimuli. The CNS interprets smells by the pattern of receptor activity. Aging and Olfactory Sensitivity The olfactory receptor population shows considerable turnover.
The number of olfactory receptors declines with age. Gustation Taste gustatory receptors are clustered in taste buds. Taste buds are associated with epithelial projections lingual papillae on the dorsal surface of the tongue. The human tongue has three types of lingual papillae: A typical gustatory cell survives for only about 10 days before it is replaced.
Gustatory Pathways The taste buds are monitored by cranial nerves that synapse within the solitary nucleus of the medulla oblongata and then on to the thalamus and the primary sensory cortex. Gustatory Discrimination The primary taste sensations are sweet, salty, sour, and bitter.
Humans have two additional taste sensations: Detected by receptors sensitive to amino acids, small peptides, and nucleotides. Dissolved chemicals contacting the taste hairs bind to receptor proteins of the gustatory cell.
Different tastes involve different receptor mechanisms.
Salt and sour receptors are chemically gated ion channels whose stimulation produces depolarization of the cell. Receptors responding to sweet, bitter, and umami stimuli are G proteins called gustducins. The end result of taste receptor stimulation is the release of neurotransmitters by the receptor cell.
The dendrites of the sensory afferents are tightly wrapped by folds of the receptor cell membrane, and neurotransmitter release leads to the generation of action potentials in the afferent fiber.
Taste sensitivity exhibits significant individual differences, some of which are inherited.Estimated per capita income in $29, (it was $16, in ) Baltimore city income, earnings, and wages data Estimated median house or condo value in $, (it was $69, in ).
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