The person who led the revolt against the Roman Catholic Church was Martin Luther who in challenged the Catholic Church's practice of the sale of "Indulgences" which would enable a person to be excepted from God's punishment for his sins if he paid the Church a sum of money. Luther was excommunicated by the Catholic Church. Luther challenged the authority of the Pope and preached that salvation is a free gift of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ given to a truly repentant sinner.
The first two questions face anyone who cares to distinguish the real from the unreal and the true from the false.
The third question faces anyone who makes any decisions at all, and even not deciding is itself a decision. Thus all persons practice philosophy whether they know it or not. Autocosmic Answers What is existing?
Reality consists ultimately of matter and energy and their fundamentally lawlike and unwilled relations in space-time. To exist is to have a causal relationship with the rest of the universe. The universe is the maximal set of circumstances that includes this statement and no subset of which is causally unrelated to the remainder.
Humans do not know why the universe exists or what it is for. The universe operates without supernatural intervention and according to lawlike regularities that can be understood through empirical investigation and without special intuition. Humans have no credible evidence of any supernatural agency or unity.
Humans have no credible evidence that any minds enjoy eternal existence. Knowledge is justified true belief.
Truth is logical and parsimonious consistency with evidence and with other truth. Meaning is the context-sensitive connotation ultimately established by relevant denotation and use.
All synthetic propositions including this one can only be known from experience and are subject to doubt. A synthetic statement is propositionally meaningless if it is in principle neither falsifiable nor verifiable.
A mind is any volition al conscious faculty for perception and cognition. Minds and ideas consist ultimately of matter. Mental states are functional states consisting of causal relations among components for processing information.
Consciousness is awareness of self and environment. Intelligence is the ability to make, test, and apply inductions about perceptions of self and world. There are no forms of reasoning or kinds of knowledge that are in principle inaccessible to regular intelligence.
As autonomous living intellects, we persons value intelligence and life and the autonomy they need to flourish. A person is any intelligen t being with significant volitional control over how it affects other beings.
All persons have the right to life and liberty. All beings have the right not to suffer torture or extinction. Liberty is volition in the absence of aggression.
Coercion is compulsion of one person by another through force or threat of aggression. Justice is the minimization, reversal and punishment of aggression.
The purpose of the state is to effect justice, provide aid and sustenance to persons in mortal danger, protect species in danger of extinction, and prevent torture.
Autocosmology is a synthesis of metaphysical naturalismontological materialismepistemological empiricism and positivismmental functionalismtheological atheismaxiological extropianismpolitical libertarianismeconomic capitalismconstitutional federalismbiological evolutionismevolutionary psychology, and technological optimism.The greatest influence of the mystery religions on Christianity lies in a different direction from that of doctrine and ritual.
It lies in the fact that the mystery religions paved the way for the presentation of Christianity to the world of that time. Islam, Muslims and Islamic civilization are under siege in America.
Subsequent to the tragic incidents of September 11, Afghanistan and Iraq wars, ISIS’s barbarism and Paris shooting, Islam both as religion and community has witnessed some of the worst attacks upon its heritage and legacy unprecedented in the previous history.
The history of the term humanism is complex but enlightening. It was first employed (as humanismus) by 19th-century German scholars to designate the Renaissance emphasis on classical studies in regardbouddhiste.com studies were pursued and endorsed by educators known, as early as the late 15th century, as umanisti—that is, professors or students of Classical literature.
REFORMATION, PROTESTANT. The term Reformation refers in general to the major religious changes that swept across Europe during the s, transforming worship, politics, society, and basic cultural patterns. One key dimension was the Protestant Reformation, the movement that began in with Martin Luther's critique of doctrinal principles and church actions .
To introduce these four new books by one particular publisher I wanted to explain – in case ya hadn’t noticed – that we carry all manner of publishers, large and small, faith-based and otherwise, like any full service bookstore.
Luther’s attempts to reform the church led, among other things, to the development of a robust doctrine of vocation. He pushed back against the notion that certain callings, like his earlier monastic calling, were somehow more holy than working outside the church.