Essays 2 pages, words Plato Republic Socrates engages in conversations with people claiming to be experts, usual in ethical matters. By asking simple questions, Socrates gradually reveals that these people were in fact very confused and did not actually know anything about the matters about which they claimed to be an expert.
When people approach a religious text or any large book from which they intend to derive ethical teachings, nearly without exception the person will pick up the book and pay very particular attention to all the morals they already agree with.
The philosopher George Smith says that " Christian theologians have a strong tendency to read their own moral convictions into the ethics of Jesus. Jesus is made to say what theologians think he should have said" A homophobe will pick up the Christian Bible and realise that homosexuality is an evil sin.
A misogynist will pick up the Bible or Qur'an and realise that after all this time he's right: Women are inferior, and he can quote the Bible or Qur'an to prove it. A fluffy liberal will read it and find all the hippy love-thy-neighbour bits and therefore will be able to prove that all those homophobes and misogynists have it wrong.
In arguing against extremism, Neil J. Kressel points out that "everyone picks and chooses, at least a little. Long texts that dance with moral issues suffer from the problem that some morals in one place step on the toes of other morals in other parts.
The debates over which verses have precedence over others is a major symptom of this issue. In addition because of the volume of text and its frequent obscurity and complexity, there is plenty of scope for the imagination, and for personal bias, to find a way to interpret lines in a way that beat to the drum of the reader.
Because of the kaleidoscope of different plotlines and levels of possible interpretation, one's subconscious and imagination is given accidental freedom to invent all kinds of morals. Most stories in holy books are about personalities - tales about what people are said to have done what.
Most of them also involve war and cultural struggles between different peoples, and are often written from within one particular geographical area. It is possible to read these stories and take out of them a wide range of morals, and therefore, to think that these indirect lessons have divine mandate.
The same occurs with all long texts. Take Tolkien's Lord of the Rings - it is very much like the Bible in styleand it is clear to see that you could spend your entire life analyzing it for morals.
Many people who undertook such a task would come to different conclusions, just as with Holy Books. The simple fact remains that the parts of the text that say "Here follows a moral rule, to be obeyed by all people for all time" are very infrequent indeed. The Qur'an is much more frank than the Bible, but is still mostly about the retelling of events.
The people in the book all have their own aims, which are relevant to the topic of the book and the life circumstances of that person.
Most people's actions are simply not centered around any wish to provide universal instruction on behaviour - it's all about their problems at that time.
Using characters from within this book we would find many seemingly contradictory morals. For example, for the side of Good, there is much killing to be done, yet part of the morals is that the bad guys kill people. People interpret the "real meanings" behind various stories in hugely varying ways, and volumes of books have been written on such interpretations based on political and moral undertones.
The answer is that this describes all large books written by Humans. Attempts to read them as places for moral instruction is itself the problem, and the cause of schism, violent disagreements and fundamentalism.
As time passes, the original cultural assumptions and cultural understanding of phrases and words will all change, making it impossible for many things to be understood by future audiences in the same way that the original authors meant them. The longer ago something was written, the less the context is clear to us today, and this opens the way for much culturally subjective opinion.
A land of barbarians may feel quite free to brutalize others just as they brutalize themselves 38whereas band of s hippies spread love in a much more physical way.
Over time, morals are simply read into texts differently, hence why religious prohibitions change over time too. We read text literally, chronologically and philosophically, but both The Koran and much of The Bible was written in prose, in poetry, using many symbolic aspects and word games.
Shifts in time and place mean that there are unknown cultural references that we cannot possibly understand now, even if text that we think we are reading correctly.January Have you ever seen an old photo of yourself and been embarrassed at the way you looked?
Did we actually dress like that? We did. And we had no idea how silly we looked. Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concern matters of value, and thus comprise the branch of philosophy called axiology..
Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong. Characteristic Of A Moral Person Philosophy Essay. Print Reference this.
Disclaimer: Moral principles are an important part of what makes a good person. Therefore, what are the characteristic of a moral person?
It’s the action you take to carry out the values, ethics and morals that you believe in. When they have determination to.
Responsibility. We evaluate people and groups as responsible or not, depending on how seriously they take their responsibilities.
Often we do this informally, via moral judgment. The Moral Accounting Schemes. The general metaphor of Moral Accounting is realized in a small number of basic moral schemes: Reciprocation, Retribution, Restitution, Revenge, Altruism, etc.
Each of these moral schemes is defined using the metaphor of Moral Accounting, but the schemes differ as how they use this metaphor, that is, they differ as to their inherent logics. 1. Aims and Methods of Moral Philosophy. The most basic aim of moral philosophy, and so also of the Groundwork, is, in Kant’s view, to “seek out” the foundational principle of a “metaphysics of morals,” which Kant understands as a system of a priori moral principles that apply the CI to human persons in all times and cultures.
Kant pursues this project through the first two chapters.