In lateEckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [ 17 ]. To illustrate with a quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [ 34 ], "We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1, simple trajectories.
The Central Pacific began laying track eastward from Sacramento, California inand the Union Pacific started laying track westward from Omaha, Nebraska, two years later in July, To meet its manpower needs, the Central Pacific hired thousands of Chinese laborersincluding many recruited from farms in Canton.
The crew of the Union Pacific, which was composed largely of Irish immigrants and Civil War veterans, had to contend with Indian attacks and the Rocky Mountains.
On May 10,after completing 1, miles, 4, feet 2, Courtesy Martin Gregor and Bruce C. Reproduction in whole or in part without permission is prohibited. As second in command of the most formidable engineering project of the 19th century, Lewis M.
Then, at one in the morning on May 3,a great, noisy crumbling took place at the east facing, and light from torches in the west could be seen flickering through the dust.
The Summit had been pierced. The Sierras had been bested. With torchbearers stationed every few yards in the 1,foot bore, Clement began his first series of observations in the damp and eerie tunnel. They had made their calculations under poor visibility on a wildly uneven tunnel floor, plotting a bore not only divided into four distinct parts, but one that had to gradually rise, descend, and curve as it penetrated from west to east.
As Clement finished his measurements and worked out the geometric statistics at a rude desk near the tunnel mouth, he found his most fervent prayers answered. The seemingly impossible had been achieved.
The longest tunnel anyone had cut through natural granite, cut at a daunting altitude in an abominable climate, had been bored by a small army of Chinese thousands of miles from their ancestral home.
The Sierras were truly breached and In February,Clement was appointed as one of four members of the Special U. Clement went on to design and build also using Chinese laborers the Southern Pacific Railroad line from Sacramento to Los Angeles via the San Joaquin Valleyand also worked on many urban and cable car lines.
Among his works in the area was the design of the cable car turntable at the foot of Market Street in San Francisco.Copying is the engine of civilization: culture is behavior duplicated. The oldest copier invented by people is language, by which an idea of yours becomes an idea of mine.
My business consists entirely of analyzing other peoples sales, and outright stealing/copying the most profitable ones, patents etc be damned. Its much easier to steal marketshare than to create an entirely new market that shits for suckers.
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