Honors Chemistry is designed for students who have demonstrated strong ability in previous science courses. In this fast-paced, demanding course, the main topics--which include atomic theory, nuclear chemistry, periodicity, chemical reactions, stoichiometry, gases, solutions, reaction kinetics, equilibrium, acid-base theory, oxidation-reduction, and organic chemistry--are studied at an advanced level, with an focus on both conceptual understanding and problem-solving. Quantitative aspects of chemical concepts are emphasized throughout the course. Laboratory experimentation is an integral part of this class, and students write a number of formal reports which require demonstration of a sophisticated understanding of the relevant theories and principles.
This term was introduced by English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday in for the then-unknown species that goes from one electrode to the other through an aqueous medium. This conveys matter from one place to the other. Faraday also introduced the words anion for a negatively charged ion, and cation for a positively charged one.
In Faraday's nomenclature, cations were named because they were attracted to the cathode in a galvanic device and anions were named due to their attraction to the anode.
Svante Arrhenius put forth, in his dissertation, his explanation of the fact that solid crystalline salts dissociate into paired charged particles when dissolved, for which he would win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Arrhenius proposed that ions formed even in the absence of an electric current. Ions are also produced in the liquid or solid state when salts interact with solvents for example, water to produce solvated ions, which are more stable, for reasons involving a combination of energy and entropy changes as the ions move away from each other to interact with the liquid.
These stabilized species are more commonly found in the environment at low temperatures. A common example is the ions present in seawater, which are derived from dissolved salts.
As charged objects, ions are attracted to opposite electric charges positive to negative, and vice versa and repelled by like charges. When they move, their trajectories can be deflected by a magnetic field. Electrons, due to their smaller mass and thus larger space-filling properties as matter wavesdetermine the size of atoms and molecules that possess any electrons at all.
Thus, anions negatively charged ions are larger than the parent molecule or atom, as the excess electron s repel each other and add to the physical size of the ion, because its size is determined by its electron cloud.
Cations are smaller than the corresponding parent atom or molecule due to the smaller size of the electron cloud.
One particular cation that of hydrogen contains no electrons, and thus consists of a single proton - very much smaller than the parent hydrogen atom. Anions and cations[ edit ] Hydrogen atom center contains a single proton and a single electron.
Removal of the electron gives a cation leftwhereas addition of an electron gives an anion right. The hydrogen anion, with its loosely held two-electron cloud, has a larger radius than the neutral atom, which in turn is much larger than the bare proton of the cation.
For other uses, see Ion disambiguation. Since the electric charge on a proton is equal in magnitude to the charge on an electron, the net electric charge on an ion is equal to the number of protons in the ion minus the number of electrons.
A zwitterion is a neutral molecule with positive and negative charges at different locations within that molecule. But most anions are large, as is the most common Earth anion, oxygen.
From this fact it is apparent that most of the space of a crystal is occupied by the anion and that the cations fit into the spaces between them. List of oxidation states of the elements Ions are ubiquitous in nature and are responsible for diverse phenomena from the luminescence of the Sun to the existence of the Earth's ionosphere.
Atoms in their ionic state may have a different colour from neutral atoms, and thus light absorption by metal ions gives the colour of gemstones.
In both inorganic and organic chemistry including biochemistrythe interaction of water and ions is extremely important; an example is the energy that drives breakdown of adenosine triphosphate ATP. The following sections describe contexts in which ions feature prominently; these are arranged in decreasing physical length-scale, from the astronomical to the microscopic.
Ions can be non-chemically prepared using various ion sourcesusually involving high voltage or temperature. These are used in a multitude of devices such as mass spectrometersoptical emission spectrometersparticle acceleratorsion implantersand ion engines.
As reactive charged particles, they are also used in air purification by disrupting microbes, and in household items such as smoke detectors. As signalling and metabolism in organisms are controlled by a precise ionic gradient across membranesthe disruption of this gradient contributes to cell death.
This is a common mechanism exploited by natural and artificial biocidesincluding the ion channels gramicidin and amphotericin a fungicide.
Inorganic dissolved ions are a component of total dissolved solidsa widely-known indicator of water quality. Detection of ionizing radiation[ edit ] Schematic of an ion chamber, showing drift of ions. Electrons drift faster than positive ions due to their much smaller mass.
The original ionization event liberates one electron, and each subsequent collision liberates a further electron, so two electrons emerge from each collision: The ionizing effect of radiation on a gas is extensively used for the detection of radiation such as alphabetagamma and X-rays.
The original ionization event in these instruments results in the formation of an "ion pair"; a positive ion and a free electron, by ion impact by the radiation on the gas molecules. The ionization chamber is the simplest of these detectors, and collects all the charges created by direct ionization within the gas through the application of an electric field.WRITING THE NAME OF GIVEN COMPOUND.
Compounds are made up of elements chemically combined together. The chemical formula of . Most of the polyatomic ions are anions.
The formula for the compound will contain both a cation and an anion to balance the overall charge of the compound. Most of the polyatomic ions are anions. The formula for the compound will contain both a cation and an anion to balance the overall charge of the compound.
Converting Formulas to Names. Chemists have established different sets of rules for writing the names and formulas of different types of chemical compounds, so the first step in writing a name from a chemical formula is to decide what type of compound the formula represents.
Rules for Naming Ionic Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions: Polyatomic ions are ions which consist of more than one atom. For example, nitrate ion, NO 3-, contains one nitrogen atom and three oxygen regardbouddhiste.com atoms in a polyatomic ion are usually covalently bonded to one another, and therefore stay together as a single, charged unit.
AP Chemistry is an in-depth, fast-paced second-year chemistry course for advanced, science-oriented students. The course will provide students with a thorough grounding in chemical principles and quantitative reasoning, with an emphasis on inorganic chemistry.