In the most general sense, it is the polar opposite of reactive policing, which is characterized by randomized patrol, rapid response to calls for service, and retrospective investigations.
Essay - Paper Example What are the advantages and disadvantages of 'reactive' and 'proactive' approaches to police investigation? Essay Both Reactive and Proactive police investigations are used in Britain today in order to apprehend and punish criminals for breaking the law, from crimes like burglary and assault, to much more serious crimes such as drug dealing, fraud and murder - What are the advantages and disadvantages of 'reactive' and 'proactive' approaches to police investigation?
The crime control model states how important law enforcement is, as, unless criminal conduct is kept under tight control, the view is that there will be a breakdown in public order and a limit to human freedom.
This essay aims to introduce and describe the two methods of policing and also to discuss their advantages and disadvantages. The reactive and more traditional approach to policing and police investigation involves responding to reports, complaints or cries of help, from the general public, regarding crimes that have already been committed or put simply, a reaction to crime.
Another aspect of reactive policing involves the use of foot and car patrols in public areas as an attempt to prevent people committing offences, such as fighting, vandalism and burglary, the objective being to keep the Queens peace in public areas.
Whereas reactive policing can be seen as a viscous circle, proactive policing can be called a virtuous circle, where, the police set and meet priorities and prolific offenders are caught, this deterring them from committing future crime and giving the public more confidence in the system. Proactive Policing Essays: Over , Proactive Policing Essays, Proactive Policing Term Papers, Proactive Policing Research Paper, Book Reports. ESSAYS, term and research papers available for UNLIMITED access. Community orientated policing is a proactive philosophy that promotes solving problems that are either criminal, affect the quality of life, or increase citizens fear of crime. It involves identifying, analyzing and addressing community problems at their source. Community policing Essay Community Policing.
The aim of proactive policing is to eliminate the cause before the crime occurs rather than deal with the consequences; it is more a strategy for crime reduction.
As well as aiming to gain convictions, it also aims to disrupt illegal organisations and activity. It involves using different methods of surveillance and uses modern technology to build up pictures of potential criminals and gather evidence of criminal behaviour.
One area inside proactive policing is data gathering and the building up of profiles about certain individuals or groups. Personal details and the specific details of crimes that they committed are stored in a central computerized intelligence system within a force and can be accessed by members of that force.
This database can then be used to link a number of crimes to one person or group, by looking at specific characteristics of the crimes committed such as the time of day the criminal usually acts or the type of weapon used.
Another area inside proactive police investigation is to then put the suspected criminals under surveillance, either physical, such as staking out their property and noting their movements and interactions, or electronically, such as bugging phone lines and email communication.
This form of policing tends to involve specialist squads within the force who target specific criminals such as drug dealers or fraudsters.
Another part of proactive investigation is to use informants who exchange information for money or in order for them to receive a lighter punishment for a crime they have committed.
Once enough information has been gathered, enough evidence collected and the potential threat realised, counter-measures can then be taken to prevent the crime happening.
An advantage to reactive policing is that there is a real and actual demand for it from the members of the public.
Knowing that if you become a victim of a crime, there is always a member of the police force at the end of a phone or patrolling the streets makes people feel a lot safer. Public tranquillity and reassurance is a very important goal for the police, and one of the key objectives set for the police by the Home Office in was to respond promptly to emergency calls from the public.
Public areas which have police patrols, have a lot lower crime rate as the offenders are deterred by the visible police presence, and have a much greater fear of being discovered committing an offence.
Reactive policing is all done openly and in the public eye and no ethical guidelines are broken. It also operates on a personal level, with the police officers actually meeting and talking to the victims of crime, and also being able to offer help, in the form of a counsellor or another professional.
Reactive police investigation also has its many disadvantages too. It is often seen as a vicious circle, starting with the volume of crime overwhelming the police, with few resources and the often endless paperwork, there is no time for any proactive work, resulting in the prolific offenders not being caught.
Although a necessity, it is often perceived that the amount of paperwork police officers are expected to do is a waste of time, for example, the apprehension of someone stealing something from a shop, requires some 40 forms to be completed.
The effort is focused on the crime itself rather than the criminal that did it, and the paperwork ties up the officers and prevents them from doing proactive work, which is needed to identify and apprehend the prolific criminals.
Reactive policing is felt to have limited impact against the more serious and professional criminals and tends to focus more on petty criminals. Because reactive policing is so time consuming, proactive work is often squeezed into the remaining available time and is rarely part of a planned programme.
Research showed that a person is influenced by their past contact with the police, many reported that they were unhappy with the officers attitudes or their ability to keep the victims informed about follow-up enquiries. A main advantage to proactive work is the success of the computerized database of offenders.
It provides a system for analysing patterns of crime and allowing clusters of crimes to be credited to one individual as usually a relatively small number of prolific criminals account for a substantial proportion of crime due to multiple offences.
It is also rare to gain sufficient evidence to convict a suspect from just one crime scene, with the evidence from all the linked crimes put together there are increased odds of securing a conviction.
Another benefit is that it allows those people wrongly suspected of a crime to be eliminated from police enquiries. Through analysing the data, the police are also able to spot patterns and trends in crime and target it before it happens, such as increasing patrols in specific areas before drug dealers or gangs move in, or educating school children about the dangers of crime in problem areas.
A powerful, public attack was made, where the handlers of stolen goods were targeted and there were regular searches of active burglars houses. Whereas reactive policing can be seen as a viscous circle, proactive policing can be called a virtuous circle, where, the police set and meet priorities and prolific offenders are caught, this deterring them from committing future crime and giving the public more confidence in the system.
Clear up rates improve and the police have more time for crime prevention, which deters more offenders and the crime rates are held. As with reactive policing, the proactive approach also has its disadvantages. The full value as a predictive technique cannot be realised unless the system is easily accessible, integrated and at a local level.
Although surveillance tactics have proved to be invaluable, many forces are understaffed and inadequately equipped with the necessary technology to attempt it. Surveillance activities are also incredibly expensive and time and resource consuming.This essay has been submitted by a law student.
This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Advantages and disadvantages of community policing.
Community orientated policing is a proactive philosophy that promotes solving problems that are either criminal, affect the quality of life, or increase citizens fear of crime.
It involves identifying, analyzing and addressing community problems at their source. Community policing Essay Community Policing.
Community policing is a proactive philosophy that promotes solving problems that are either criminal, affect the quality of life, or increase citizens’ fear of crime (Skogan, ).
It involves identifying, analyzing and addressing community problems at their source. Community policing is a proactive philosophy that promotes solving problems that are either criminal, affect the quality of life, or increase citizens’ fear of crime (Skogan, ).
It involves identifying, analyzing and addressing community problems at their source. Proactive policing is the practice of deterring criminal activity by showing police presence and engaging the public to learn their concerns, thereby preventing crime from taking place in the first place.
In contrast, responding to a complaint after a crime has been committed is reactive policing. Proactive policing can be contrasted with reactive policing, or police work in which police officers are simply responding to citizens' calls for service.
Police responses to calls or calls.