On Liberty Mill's On Liberty addresses the nature and limits of the power that can be legitimately exercised by society over the individual.
Home Utilitarianism and Abortion The debate over abortion usually focuses on politics and law and the most frequently asked question tends to be whether or not abortion should be outlawed or continue to be allowed at the discretion of each individual.
Behind these debates are the most basic of ethical questions which do not always receive the attention they may deserve. There are many opinions on this topic, however, a good place to start is whether or not law has the authority to rule over morality and whether the laws that we have now bring enough attention to the moral value of abortion.
Along with these concepts abortion can also be viewed through the eyes of the utilitarian approach to ethics which focuses on both pleasure and pain and the ability to maximize pleasure over pain.
To do so we must first know exactly what abortion is and then must also have a broad definition of what the utilitarian theory encompasses. Abortion by definition is the termination of a pregnancy by the removal or expulsion of a fetus or embryo from the uterus resulting in its death.
The utilitarian theory by definition focuses on the rightness or wrongness of the act in question and its effects on a community as a whole Katz, Viewing abortion through the utilitarian approach, theorists would want to distinguish between the possibility of pleasure and pain instances of abortion over the amounts of pleasure and pain when abortion is not the option.
Most would think that the best place to begin this discussion would be from the prospects of the fetus itself however, that is not always the case. Secondly, no one knows for sure what level of pain is inflicted through the procedure, especially in the later stages of pregnancy.
Unfortunately, this focus seems to be unjustified because many say that the abortion could have been done earlier and with less invasive techniques. The problem with both of these possibilities is that who determines the amount of pain inflicted?
Usually adults in experimental settings so then the question that follows must be how can adults know how an unborn fetus itself will feel?
Another consideration would have to be that the life of the unborn fetus would promote a much greater amount of happiness over pain. Again no one knows exactly what the future may hold, but it is very likely that these individuals, who are essentially put to death against their will, have a very happy life.
This, however, cannot happen once an abortion has taken place because any chance for the fetus to experience happiness in any form has been removed.
The possibilities of pleasure over pain for an unborn fetus later in life must be thoroughly considered when applying the utilitarian method to the process of abortion.
The third group that must be accounted for are the parents and extended family of the unborn child. Those who intend on having a child are doing so under careful consideration and thus happiness should prevail.
To the opposite of this are those who are pregnant with an unwanted child that may feel grief and are more than likely to become unhappy and even depressed from the birth of this child. This may result from financial issues or just the general unpreparedness to having a child that is not wanted.
The parents and extended family are also a component of abortion that must be considered under the utilitarian method of ethics. In this way those overdeveloped areas will require abortion as a way to control the population while the underdeveloped areas will be strictly against abortion so that their population can flourish.
To take this method even farther there are two very different rules that are provided by this method those being Rule and Act utilitarian.
This principle can be said to be a test for the morality of a moral rule and does not pertain to the action itself.
This rule will allow for more positive then negativities to come from all of those who follow it. Rule utilitarianism then becomes a method for judging various behaviors. Rule utilitarianism allows abortion to be labeled according to moral rules thus allowing each individual a chance at a more favorable outcome over an unfavorable one.
Act utilitarianism, in contrast, maintains that the morality of each action is determined in relation to the favorable and unfavorable consequences that come from the act Waller, This aspect seems the best fit when speaking of abortion as it focuses on the act of abortion and not just the consequences of the act or moral code.
The Act portion of utilitarianism is a more moral based utilitarianism as it focuses on the act itself and the consequences that come from doing that specific act.
Now that we have a broad prospective on how the utilitarian theory works in accordance to the topic of abortion we must further this discussion and apply the fundamental aspects of a variety of different theorists to the topic of abortion.
This is an important concept to hold and brings a much heated debate on abortion that will surely require much attention in the future.
Singer starts his debate on this issue at the very beginning of the life cycle and never looks back. He says as stated by Crome Along the way he emphasizes that this process may hit many detours in the determining when a fetus can actually be able to live viably.
This is just one of the ways Singer brings mention to the life cycle and its ability to determine when or when not an abortion is a just fact.
To the opposite of this there are many instances where Singer seems to be a proponent for abortion, but at the same time shows signs that he is actually against it. He even goes to the extent of giving vivid details in the case of those who may be over the gestational age to have an abortion, but choose to go to another country to have the abortion done illegally.The topic of abortion has been one of the most heavily debated topics in the United States today.
Generally it is seen as a two- sided debate, a person can be “pro-life” or “pro-choice”. Ultimately the abortion topic comes down to the legality and moral aspect of abortion.
Again, according to Kant, abortion would be immoral because it would be irrational to will that every pregnant woman have an abortion. The act of every pregnant woman aborting the fetus inside her would, ultimately, end abortion, which is completely irrational. Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE)..
Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good .
Utilitarianism: Greatest Happiness Principle - Utilitarianism, originally introduced by Jeremy Bentham and extended by John Stuart Mill, (Mark Timmons, ) is an ethical theory which states that to be good is to deliver the greatest amount of happiness to most of the people based on the consequences of the action.
Partial Birth Abortion is Murder - Partial Birth Abortion is Murder Partial birth abortion is a controversial method of abortion late in a woman’s pregnancy in which the baby is aborted by a craniotomy.
Utilitarianism and Abortion The debate over abortion usually focuses on politics and law and the most frequently asked question tends to be whether or not abortion should be outlawed or continue to be allowed at the discretion of each individual.