It is a private, Ivy League university found in the Morningside Heights area of Manhattan, and is the oldest learning institution in the state. Columbia is also the fifth oldest university in the United States, and one of only nine colleges founded before the American Revolution, which gives it the title of of a Colonial College. Columbia is also the university that presents the Pulitzer Prize each year.
I have conducted a number of semi-structured interviews with Cultural Resource Management CRM practitioners, Native American monitors and curators, academics, and policy makers. I have gathered data about cultural resources as a professional archaeologist, and worked at public institutions aimed at storing that information.
In response to this: CRM, often more generally described as compliance or contract archaeology, has gained an increasing presence in the United States since the s. Whatever the case, archaeologists in the southwestern U. This corresponded with a period of drastically increased housing development and large infrastructure improvement projects, which required government agencies to hire private archaeological contractors.
In San Diego, nearly every project involving development on public or private land requires CRM consultation.
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CRM practitioners, often under the watchful eye of Native American monitors, are hired by developers to help avoid, or at least minimize, destructive impacts upon existing cultural resources.
All of this preservation and archaeology is mandated under federal, state, and local law. Contract archaeology is government mandated archaeological practice, as defined by legislation, in response to the environmental and cultural costs of development.
This relationship was born from the looting of Mesa Verde prior to ; carved through the New Deal projects from ; re-shaped by the building of reservoirs, gas pipelines, and roads from ; and finally, sold by freeways, tract homes, urban renewal, and the oil crisis from ss.
In the co-evolutionary relationship that has defined the development of practice in CRM over time, it has been the bulldozer that has been the primary host, and the archaeological practitioner that has been the pilot fish.
Through the passage of legislation, the CRM practitioner has moved from picking through the dirt behind the bulldozer, to scrambling just ahead it and behind the surveyors, to defining its path through a maze of culturally significant boundaries, months in advance of work. CRM archaeologists have been the principle consultants for defining which cultural resources should be held as significant within the legislation, and consequently, preserved.
Beginning in the late s Native Americans gained public attention through the American Indian Movement.
Traditional cultural activities and beliefs gained preservation status under law. Most notably, places of religious or cultural significance, with no directly associated artifacts, came to be formally recognized.
In CRM, boundaries are created in space, around objects of cultural value with different temporal attributes. Like the land surveyors of the United States Geological Survey, which incidentally produce the most widely used maps in U.
As in theories of classic economic exchange, relative cultural significance is usually directly related to the scarcity of other like-sites listed upon these registers. The greater the demand for use of a specific area for development, and the higher the value of the cultural resources upon this land, the more costly the price for CRM practitioners to conduct work.
However, the inertia of progress is ceaseless, and in the end, usually the dominant force. In this way, the objects of cultural activity, and the space that surrounds them, are commoditized. This status as commodity is not simply a creation of the legislation, but defined through the practice of CRM itself and the culture that considers them to be valuable.
A common respondent definition follows: A cultural resource is a physical or intangible, built or natural, aspect of the environment, that holds cultural significance for a group or an individual.🔥Citing and more!
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The term cultural resource management (CRM) can be defined as the practice of managing cultural resources in response to some legal or policy mandate.
The terms heritage resources and heritage management are common synonyms for cultural resources and CRM, respectively. Thinking about Cultural Resource Management Essays from the Edge Tom King knows cultural resource management As one of its long standing practitioners a key person in.
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Special updates on the 10, Year Clock project are posted on the members only Clock Blog. "cultural resource management" Cancel. Cultural Resource Laws and Practice, 4th Edition (Heritage Resource Management Series) Thinking About Cultural Resource Management: Essays From the Edge (Heritage Resource Management Series) Aug 27, by Thomas F.
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