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The angular shapes of the runes, presumably an adaptation to the incision in wood or metal, are not a Germanic innovation, but a property that is shared with other early alphabets, including the Old Italic ones compare, for example, the Duenos inscription.
The 1st century BC Negau helmet inscription features a Germanic name, Harigastiz, in a North Etruscan alphabet, and may be a testimony of the earliest contact of Germanic speakers with alphabetic writing.
Similarly, the Meldorf inscription of 50 may qualify as "proto-runic" use of the Latin alphabet by Germanic speakers. The Raetic " alphabet of Bolzano " in particular seems to fit the letter shapes well.
Perhaps an "eclectic" approach can yield the best results for the explanation of the origin of the runes: The runes of uncertain derivation may either be original innovations, or adoptions of otherwise unneeded Latin letters.
Odenstedtp. Similarly, the s rune may have either three or four strokes and more rarely five or moreand only from the 5th century does the variant with three strokes become prevalent.
Note that the "mature" runes of the 6th to 8th centuries tend to have only three directions of strokes, the vertical and two diagonal directions.
Early inscriptions also show horizontal strokes: Date and purpose of invention[ edit ] The general agreement dates the creation of the first runic alphabet to roughly the 1st century.
Early estimates include the 1st century BC,  and late estimates push the date into the 2nd century. The question is one of estimating the "findless" period separating the script's creation from the Vimose finds of ca.
Other scholars are content to assume a findless period of a few decades, pushing the date into the early 2nd century. The invention of the script has been ascribed to a single person  or a group of people who had come into contact with Roman culture, maybe as mercenaries in the Roman army, or as merchants.
The script was clearly designed for epigraphic purposes, but opinions differ in stressing either magical, practical or simply playful graffiti aspects.
Rune names[ edit ] Each rune most probably had a name, chosen to represent the sound of the rune itself. The Old English names of all 24 runes of the Elder Futhark, along with five names of runes unique to the Anglo-Saxon runesare preserved in the Old English rune poemcompiled in the 8th or 9th century.
These names are in good agreement with medieval Scandinavian records of the names of the 16 Younger Futhark runes, and to some extent also with those of the letters of the Gothic alphabet recorded by Alcuin in the 9th century.
Therefore, it is assumed[ by whom? There is no positive evidence that the full row of 24 runes had been completed before the end of the 4th century, but it is likely that at least some runes had their name before that time.
The 24 Elder Futhark runes are:(With effect from the Academic Session ) 1 SCHEME OF EXAMINATION & DETAILED SYLLABUS for BBA LLB (H) Five Year Integrated Course (w.e.f. – ). Aug 27, · How to Write a Precis.
A précis is a summary of a written work, such as an article, book, or other text. You'll objectively explain the original text's main argument, support, and structure, without doing a critical analysis%(17).
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